December 18, 2010 3 comments



If you enjoyed ICIE’S ¬†WORLD feel free to JOIN us as we change clothes for a while and open a new wardrobe here: ¬†THROUGHMYLENShttp://icepix.tumblr.com/


Similar to this blog it will be my thoughts and commentary on life but – THROUGH IMAGES.

It will also heavily showcase a lot of my photography work,giving a bit more insight into the inspiration and stories behind the shoots.

The BOOK im writing is in process and when the time is right I will release the title ūüôā

In the NEW year if i’m led to , I will continue ¬†posting on this blog so keep it locked!

Until then feel free to look at blogs ive posted from the start to the end.


Until I Type Again!


Categories: Uncategorized


October 26, 2010 7 comments

Hey Blog Family….obviously I haven’t blogged in a while and people have asked whats happening with the blog..welll..I believe everything has its season and time and I believe for its season and time the BLOG served its purpose. Now i know some blogs go on for like YEARS..well that wasnt the aim of this one.

The aim was to record ones own experiences and lessons learnt in the hope that someone else could benefit from them. I beleive that season is done now and so will not  be blogging as much any more.

I want to thank alllll the readers who subscribed, everyone who commented and all who just gave so much support towards it -THANK YOU!It has been an amazing experience connecting with people through a screen and i hope to continue to do so through whatever medium I use! God Bless You All! WATCH OUT FOR THE BOOK!!!!!!!



This isn’t goodbye …merely a see you later…so….

Until I type again…see you later:)

yours sincerely,

Tope Chiedozie

Categories: Uncategorized


September 30, 2010 Leave a comment

This rough draft essay is from my first year studying my YOUTHWORK masters program.The essay looks into the idea of young people’s identity and the way it is constructed through different mediums and stimuli around them ,which can often create an IDENTITI performance. So depending on the arena a youn person is in they will ‘ACT UP’ in relation to the identity which is required of them.My case study for this piece was the South London rapper: GIGGS

PLEASE BE WARNED !!!This is a LONG piece!!! Let me know your thoughts:)

Until I Type Again….

“I am a thinking body.I posses with which I am intimately conjoined…

This me -the soul by which I am,is entirely distinct from the body.”(Gatens, 1983)

The quest  for a secure and comfortable identity amongst young people ,can be often wrought with confusion and complexities as one searches through the myriad of possibilities of who to become.This search is a particularly rocky terrain to journey across as peer groups,media vices structured institutions all bid for a stake in the makeup of their identity.

While pursuing a personalised sense of who they are in their aesthetic identity,the  added pressure mounted upon adolescents both male  and female is to also  solidify and come to a concluded state of who they are in their gender identity.

In this piece of work, I plan to unpack  the dynamics of masculinity and look deeper into the  pursuit of both a personalised and gender-orientated identity for a young person and will argue the point  as to whether these can be classed as one and the same.I will then look into what gender identities are available for specifically young black males who are aged 14 -18 and will try to determine  what the  hegemonic masculinity for that demographic is ,and what influences its construction has on them.

I will finally use music as an aspect of young peoples identity to show how the hegemonic masculinity for that particular demographic is encouraged and promoted,concluding with a look into the implications this has on my day to day youthwork practice.

(Weeks,1990) puts forward the valid point that each of us as individuals ,consistently live with  a plethora of possibly contradictory identities which rage and fight within us us to gain ground and allegiance.From the inception of puberty -an age of acute awareness of self- a chartered journey of  exploration sets sail to seek out these many possibilities to gain a finalised state of identity.

During this journey,answers ¬†are pulled from different compartments of a young person’s life to gain a better footing and understanding of who they are,what their purpose for existing is and what they are to play in the grand scheme of things.Questions relating to personal desire and taste,interests,talents,views of opinion are all sifted and weighed to either accept or reject inclusion in ones own identity makeup.This identity not only constructed from within but also draws upon our relation to others and our present surroundings,whether it be family or friends,school or council estate all are available ¬†ingredients to be added to the¬† melting pot of our being.

This journey of identity is often painted in a negative light to promote the idea of identity being a fixed and easily located place of being, and so this stage in a young person’s life is often labelled as a stage of ‘crisis’- an identity crisis.

“It is through such an identity crisis¬† or key turning point,that the identity process can proceed…. During an identity crisis ,one searches to integrate¬†or reintegrate earlier interests,talents and values into a coherent personality structure that can find suitable forms of social expression and recognition”(Kroger,2007,p.11)

In using the term ‘crisis’, we connote a sense of emergency and danger that presents this search as time bound and conclusive,this in turn places limits and constraints on young people as they are sought to be placed in a box of conformity quickly and safely.However whenever this journey is still seen to be in process or whenever a young person is found to be out of synch with the prescribed accepted structure of personal identity developement ,they are flagged as a problem.

Eril Erikson’s theory on psychosocial developement paints a vivid picture of how theory can unconsciously become a¬†basis on which youth development¬†can be¬†prescribed and structured.His particular¬†eight stage theory explains the¬†different stages or levels that human beings should naturally progress through in developing from a ¬†child to an adult.¬†Each stage in the theory emphasises a particular importance on mastery and competence,starting from 0-18 months leading right up to 65 years and over.Erikson implies that upon successfully completely each stage there awaits an inner satisfaction that fuels a desire to progress,however¬† if left incomplete will foster a sense of inadequacy and displacement.

Although many young people and adults alike are able to locate where they are currently positioned in the model,its flaw is characterised  its desire to categorise.The developement model can only work in its entirety if human developement is structured and ordered in a  linear form,whereby there is a systematic and regimented  practice of developement widely attested across all spheres or walks of life. Due to our individual experiences and biographies it is safe to say that human developement can fluctuate from a linear form to any other possibility on the model spectrum at any given time.

Using¬†James Marcia’s unpacking of the psychosocial model , we can pull out a clear¬† example of the possibility¬†of developement ¬†fluctuation. James comprises Erikson’s eight ¬†stages into five states: Diffusion-Foreclosure-Moratorium-Achievement.

If we use the example of¬†¬†a young person who is burdened¬†with the responsibility of helping to ¬†manage a home due to either family¬†bereavement or parental illness,this handing over of responsibility can cause that young person to jump from a stage of¬†¬†‘Diffusion’¬†-where¬†there is a¬†desire to escape or refrain from thinking about responsibility-to a stage of ¬†‘Achievement’- where maturation¬†has¬†caused the young person to¬†become more¬†rational,successful,effective under pressure,grounded and ¬†secure in self-¬†all at the tender age of fifteen years old.

Alternatively we could also look at how workers within the finance sector, who have ¬†recently faced redundancies in the wake of the credit crunch can easily¬†transition backwards¬†from¬†the ¬†‘Achievement’ stage to a ‘Moratorium’ stage -where there arises ¬†is a questioning and uncertainty about identity.

If we pair these examples with the advent of postmodernism and detraditionalism which both support the idea that with any social or economic change there is undoubtedly going to be an implication on the way identity is formed and communicated. This implication contests a fixed prescribed identity, giving way to a more fluid and fluctuating construction of identity that exercises agency and autonomous living.

Giving birth to a new and¬†radical form of thinking that says :”I can choose what I want to be!”

I will now briefly touch upon the idea of gender identity being yet another quest for young people to embark on through the course of their lives alongside that of a personal identity, to see whether or not there is truly a demarcation between personal identity and gender identity or if they are composed of one and the same thing.

As concluded in the paragraphs above,the discovery of one’s identity is an autonomous and fluid process, that can very well¬†continue right into adulthood.This agent-led activity ¬†enables an individual to actively construct and navigate his/her way through today’s society on the basis of¬†selection and rejection,picking and choosing identities to embody in direct relation to the environment inhabited.

However,the question I pose is: What happens when the choice to freely choose  identity has already been decided for you?

This is the very dilemma I believe gender identity presents to young people in their pursuit of self, that in tasting the freedom of identity construction , they are at the same time  forced to choose a pre-ordained gender identity, that conforms to the hegemonic  status.

(Ferree,Lorber & Hess,1999) when comparing to personal identity,state that:

“Gender in contrast typically refers to the ascription of social characteristics to each sex.It encapsulates the dominant ideas about feminine and masculine traits and behaviors prevalent in any society at one time.”

Here we see that contrary to the autonomy attached with personal construction, there is already a structured and formatted way of behaving for females and males in the wider discourse of society.We see that there is already a socially accepted model for each sex that has a standard to be met and adhered to,which is often referred to as the hegemonic.

(Gatens,1983) teases this out more when he points out that:

“The psychic illusion of a core gender identity is a catalyst to the continual performance of gender.Symbolic social structures such as law reinforce the idealized gender categories and cast out identities that disturb the socially proper gender divisions.”

“…..(gender) is produced as a ritualized repetition of conventions,and that this ritual is socially compelled in part by the force of a compulsory heterosexuality.”

Again we see here ¬†that against the backdrop of social acceptance there is already a ¬†prescribed gender identity awaiting¬† young males/females to fit into,an identity that punishes autonomy by the process of ‘othering’.¬†Of course there still remains¬†the ¬†freedom to choose which variation of gender identity you subscribe to,however¬† to be fully¬†accepted in that choice of identity,young people are taught from birth and expected to act¬† in line, with the scripted hegemonic performance of¬† that particular gender identity.

Gender identity for young people  is not predominantly an advocate of  agency, but more of conformity. It separates itself from the general construction of identity with this very distinction.Where general identity can be explored and discovered,gender identity presents a state of being that should not be tampered with or breached.variations of gender performances may be permitted , however a  hegemonic  ideal still rests at the core of what is deemed as masculine  or feminine.

For society will¬† willingly and ¬†readily tolerate a young person styling their identity and persona with of say a ‘goth’ or ’emo’,but a young male who may decide to take up ballet,in the context of a peer group of ¬†family setup¬†will prompt concern and raise eyebrows

Let us begin to take a more in-depth look into hegemony of masculinity  in relation to specific demographics,and explore how it is  constructed  and the implications it has on young people.

Hegemony presents itself as the ruling ideal, that is to be universally accepted in the wider society . It finds its strength in masquerading as the ‘norm’ and places itself as the benchmark for all to follow,David Marriott writes that:

“Hegemony is the way in which a class achieves dominance or total social authority in a particular sociopolitical situation, not so much by either coercion or consent but by a combination of the two so that it gains acceptance for its way of looking at the world..”

The hegemonic view when used to communicate ideals presents itself as an authoritative voice on any particular discourse,this ideal is then permeated and distributed throughout society as the accepted way of living and expression of behaviour.

Masculinity’s hegemonic status has for a long while stemmed from and drawn its origins from the structure of the male body form,using the sheer physique and make up of the male body to¬† dictate the role and behaviour of what a man should be. From the inception of¬† childhood young males are given archetypal examples of masculinity found in the sculpted¬† action figures and soldier figurines. These core ideals of brute force¬† and strength, are reinforced by parents and guardians when they excuse¬† fighting and other physical behaviour¬† as the norm to be expected from this particular gender. Bob Connell (1983) describes what it means to be masculine as to quite literally embody force,and that true masculinity proceeds from a¬† man’s body ,to either be inherent in a male body or to express something about a male body.

It is this simple concept that I believe informs and acts as a foundation for the hegemonic male to be modelled and structured on.

It is not only from the home these ideals are started,but there is also a more progressive reinforcement from the media ,when presenting what masculinity should be :

–¬†male characters in¬†blockbuster action films¬†reward¬†¬†¬†the strong, heroic alpha male,by preserving his life all the way through the narrative.All other derivatives of¬† the hegemonic masculinity are subject to being killed earlier in the film,or are relegated to the ‘token’ character.

men’s magazine¬†elevate the¬†¬†heterosexual ‘man’ as the¬†hegemonic norm, and therefore feed him with tips on how to better his sex life and dominate women.The magazines also imply all men should be concerned with the common¬†male related subjects of ¬†football and maintaining physique in the gym.The latest gadgets,widescreen television and high-powered car¬†advertisement,make assumptions¬†about the heights of success and wealth a man should be attaining ¬†or already possess.

It is then from this model that we draw up pre-ordained cultural templates for young men to inhabit and fulfill, othering all who do not conform.Though there has been recent changes and acceptance in the different  ways masculinity can be  perceived , there is still an underlining standard or dominant view that every parent is aware of and consciously seeks to align their child with.

Although the hegemonic male is a widespread discourse of thinking, it should not be assumed that it is accessible to all. For the hegemonic standard alters and is modified¬†when subjected to such factors as class,race and surrounding environment.Many young men who visit my training centre,sometimes speak out of anger and frustration of trying to compete with an ideal¬†that is not always admitted to ,but is covertly racialised. A hegemonic standard accessible to the wider society all but unattainable for them who are ‘othered’.

The medals of success and  strength are often out of reach from their grasp due to failed upbringing or adverse financial situations within the home, and so all that seems left to aspire to is  the masculine model they see promoted and modelled around them.

In a book titled Understanding Masculinities ,David Marriot when discussing the issue of black masculinities makes these two points:

“…moral panics created by official discourse on race-related crime, issue in a paranoid policing of the state’s internal and external frontiers,a strategy which descends in advance on the ‘problem’ category of black youth”

“…the assumed absence of paternity and parental legitimation in the social relations of young black men,acquires the status of a state ideology which serves to reinforce negative stereotypes of black masculinity as in need of constant state surveillance and policing”

Touching on these two point made in his writings,can bring to light where this ‘othering’ and exclusion mindset can be derived from.

The idea of black masculinity –¬†whether purposely propagated¬†by those who define the hegemonic or whether through media representation-I argue ¬†has been demonised and misrepresented,which is¬†¬†having a direct effect on the forms of hegemonic masculinity available to access by young black males.The excessive¬† highlighting of ¬†racial moral panics,¬† feeds this representation and presents¬†an assumed black masculinity that society becomes¬†accustomed to and accepts as the norm.

These representations¬† become the mould from which young males take their masculine identity cues from,taking the negative traits of what it is perceived to be ‘black man’ to define who they are to be as men in¬†the future.The¬†higlighting ¬†and projection of black failure, is now being lapped up and ¬†adorned by young males as part of their inherited gender identity.Resulting in agency no longer being available to them , for the terms¬†and ¬†conditions have already been set.

For many young black males¬†there is only a ¬†handful of ¬†examples of masculinity presented to them , whether that is through the local ‘olders’ found in gang culture or the seemingly successful ‘drug dealer’ or whether that is through negative headlines and news stories they see on a daily basis,they see black ¬†masculinity as inherently contaminated, but¬†seemingly the¬† only hegemonic form of masculinity for them.

To tease out more practical examples of how this is played out in our wider society and more specifically the effects it has on  my personal youthwork , I will examine how  the creative art form of rap music has been used  to distribute and promote this  misrepresentation of black masculinity.

“To assess music from outside as though it were but one commodity among many,or as though its meanings resided solely within its lyrics,is to fail to locate its pleasures,its means of manipulation ad therefore its politics.”(McClary,1994 pg.38)

I have chosen to single out music because it has for a long time been a voice for social ills and struggles, but also an instrument to unwittingly  promote normalised agendas and ideals.For the young people I work with, it plays a significant part in their culture as its ability and power to dictate lifestyle and identity is held in high regard.Many of them would like to believe agency and individualism dictates their choices, but the reality is music is one of the major driving forces behind their  social and identity construct.

The young people I will specifically¬† be¬†referring to¬†are¬†males¬†aged 14-18 , from African and Jamaican descent, situated in Peckham,South London.Peckham, located in the borough of Southwark is home to around 25,000 with quite a diverse population,it is one of Europe’s biggest regeneration zones and three years ago had the highest crime rate in London, currently now ranking ninth.It also has the highest rate of unemployment and teenage pregnancy¬†in Southwark. This is the environment these young people are living in, the¬†environment ¬†from which their music creates a¬†social constructionism for them to follow.

A local Peckham rapper by the name of Giggs (Nathan Thompson),is the leader of ‘SN1’ (Spare No One aka Black Gang) -a part music/part street gang collective,who has recently risen to become a voice for a lot of young males within the Southwark borough.His past and current affiliations with gang warfare and drugs and now rap music, seem to many of my young people the epitome of black masculinity.

Being leader of the Black Gang on a street related level, he exemplifies what it means to be a man to many young men who sit under his command.The younger faction of the gang-PYG(Peckham Young Gunners),relate to him as their ‘Older’ and plead their allegiance and loyalty to the gang and his cause.

Raised in a single parent home , due to his father not wanting to take on the responsibility, he represents a hoard of young men who share in  that struggle to become a man without knowing how to be a man and in turn look to him for that direction.

In 2005, after serving time in jail for gun possession, Giggs became a father and decided to put ¬†more energy into producing albums and music for the ‘streets’. Four years later, the result of that hard work would land him a recording contract and a music award which saw him win over major rap artists in the U.S. -finally Peckham has their very own president.

All these factors ,though seemingly trivial have added weight and credence behind his music , creating a following of young men that look up to him as a standard for male living,looking to his music as a mould to build their lives upon.

So, what is the hegemonic masculinity presented by Giggs’s music and hat effect does it have if any on youthwork practice?

His music acknowledges the misrepresentations and demonisation and seeks not to dispel or defend it ,but instead to revel and glorify in it.

“Betta leave now/when I squeeze down/on the Tray Pound (gun)/Clean your blood with a tea towel!” -1xtra Radio Freestyle(Giggs)

The demonisation of black masculinity has definitely¬†cast a menacing shadow¬†over ¬†what it means to be a black man in today’s society,when addressing crime and violence.The heightened moral panics of gun and knife culture over the last 2 years,have almost made a black face or group of black men synonymous with crimes committed in the capital, and therefore to the public¬†eye create a normalised state of affiliation. With Giggs being the leader of one of the most notorious street gangs in London, violence in his music ¬†has been taking on and adorned by many young males as a masculine ¬†medal to be worn and be proud of.

This causes them to subscribe to the thinking that the more violent you are in society, then ultimately the  more of a man you become.

Suzanne Hatty mentions in Engendering Violence that:

“The pressures to speak and act violent are everywhere…violence is not a deviant act, it is a conforming one.”(Toomey,2000 pg.1)

The problems I then encounter on a practitioner level, as a result of this thinking can be found when I have to administer or advise young people on conflict resolution.The idea of walking away from an incident or talking it over, is often too foreign of a concept for them to grasp.Extreme violence is directly linked not only to their generalised manhood ,but  more specifically to their racialised manhood, and therefore to forgo such  a violent retribution is to place a question mark over both entities,which none are prepared to do.

“I’m out the door about half eight/trying to stack dough(money) for my yoot'(son) and my marjay(mother)

…mad poverty niggas can’t get jobs so they buy brown(”¬†¬† -‘Bring A Message Back’

For many young males residing in Peckham, the absence of a father in the home is a normalised occurrence,and so to is the bitterness and anger held in many hearts towards that fact. In response to this absence Gigg’s lyrics paint a reality for many young men who are forced at a very young age to fill those shoes that have been left vacant. As the ‘man of the house’ it now becomes that males responsibility to uphold all.However ,even though this form of autonomy and independence seems common with the general masculine identity, young black males seem to¬† draw from their¬† criminalised distorted representation of masculinity and therefore turn to¬†criminal activities¬†to support the home instead of regular employment.

What unfolds is a legitimisation of criminal activity that is justified by the need to fend for one’s self and his family.Drug selling and robbery are carried out by a very young age range¬†– as young as 14¬†years old¬†¬†– all in a perceived bid to make ends meet. This is what Giggs’s music promotes on an¬†entertainment level but also on a street level as many of his younger constituency¬†will be roped into criminal activity with the offer of earning large amounts of money ,with little or no risk.

The problems this bears on my youthwork is the resistance¬† I find with some young males, when it comes to securing a place in education or employment.In searching for regular retail jobs or places in education , I am always met with the phrase- “that’s long!”-meaning the task is too arduous and time consuming.So what has happened is that the fast money of the criminal lifestyle¬† far surpasses that of¬† a life wrought with hard work and steady progress.The black masculinity propagated is one of looking out for number one and ensuring that is done, by any means necessary.For the threat of prison or being caught¬† is of no consequence, rather yet another badge to wear with pride.

“They say¬†THEY wanna cut crime down/I do something positive and THEY fly down…!”

“I used to shot cats whole packets of rock/Now I make music what they planning to block”¬†¬† – ‘Slow Songs’

In his music Giggs focuses alot on ‘the struggle’ -a struggle that I assume finds it roots traced back to the time of slavery and oppression.The struggle to rise over the ‘white man’s’ colonial rule which he believes still exists in modern-day society .It is this struggle which he identifies in the lyrics above and thus feeds through his music,encouraging others to stand up against the system that seeks to suppress them.

What ensues is a total rebellion against any authoritative institution-the police,governing bodies and educational systems are all places young males are encouraged to go against and rebel.It is¬†the ¬†embracing of the distorted masculinity that others like him,actually find strength in. Being uninterested¬†at school,not wanting a nine to five job and¬†refusing to¬†co-operate with the police , are all acts that seek to¬†ridicule the ‘system’ and reinforce a masculine autonomy:

“Autonomy-equated with independence,stability and rational functioning-is cultivated and highly valued.This emphasis on self governance translates into a specific construction of the self.In this construction,individual responsibility is of central significance.”(Pitch,1995)

Young males who come into my sessions with this extreme desire for autonomy, find it hard to handle authority figures or be told what to do. In turn when placed on courses or work within work settings they find it hard to maintain because once again they feel they are being oppressed and targeted,whereas a lot of the time it boils down to their inability to work in a team work settings or take correction from those in charge.

“I swagger it out!/The True Religion jeans might be matching the Ralph! -‘Dont’ Go There’

From coming out of a position of working class , and feeling unable to compete with the legitimate,widespread ¬†representation of the hegemonic male, young black males will strive to do all they can to convince others of¬† their status and wealth,even if it does not truly exist.Throughout Giggs’s lyrics you will hear an array of designer clothes¬† being ‘name dropped’ which is very common in rap,as the art form presents a platform for new identity formation and construction ,enabling one to be what he dreams in song even if his life is a stark contrast.What this creates is a masculinity identified¬†and determined by what¬†clothes are¬†worn.

“Hip hop remains a never-ending battle for status,prestige and group adoration which is always in formation,always contested and never fully achieved.” (Rose,1994 pg.79)

Although this may seem,evidently present¬†as merely an attributing factor in ¬†mainstream hegemonic masculinity ,for black young males this is one of the major determinants of true masculinity.If you are a young¬† black male and ¬†happen to possess a Gucci belt¬†, Louis Vuitton scarf or True Religion jeans ,your level of respect increases and ensures your masculine dominance is secure.(Lasch ,1984) when¬†describing ¬†the ‘Imperial Self’ stated ¬†that¬†¬†: ‘The narcissistic dimensions of the imperial self are manifest in the preoccupation with the cultivation of an image that accords with socially constructed symbols of perfection,status, and success.

Lasch comment concerning the Imperial self is highlighted more so  in my practice work, when it comes to examining the materialism that exists amongst the young males.Due to our program being externally funded we offer qualifications that have attached to them  monetary incentives.When each client finishes their course there is a heightened concern as to when the money will be handed over as purchases of clothes and footwear are waiting to be made,when suggestions are made to save  money or put it  towards a  future project -there is an immediate response of laughter and ridicule.I have found that, the materialistic streak within them is not just for display and status but is actually an extension of their masculine identity,marking territory and declaring dominance.

In a newspaper article ,an ex-member of the Peckham gang  had this to say concerning image and status :

“It’s all about whose got the best bottle of champagne, who’s wearing the best trainers, who’s pushing the biggest weights, who’s got the biggest jewellery, who’s driving the best car.’

According to Mr X, if you can scoop every title – best champagne, best gun, best trainers – you will deemed the ‘winner’ of your area, or ‘ends’ as it is more commonly known: ‘Once you got your status, you’re made in your “ends”. You go put on certain cable channels and you hear it all in the music: “Rep [represent] your ends”. They’re glorifying it. Talking about drugs, guns, it’s all gone mad!’

In conclusion,I put forward the viewpoint that¬†gender identity is a separate performative ¬†identity to be pursued¬†and discovered¬† alongside that of the general identity.The masculine container for identity is ever-changing and shifting but I believe that the core hegemonic still exists as an overbearing ¬†ideal.An ideal¬† racialised and sexualised,an ideal¬†not available to all but paraded by the ruling bodies.However , I have found that this¬†ideal ¬†is subject to many variants such as class,race ¬†and one’s¬†surrounding environment and if ¬†any of these factors are drastically altered, so too are the perceptions of what it is to practice ‘true’ masculinity.

For many young black males their hegemonic masculine identity can only be drawn from the negative examples they see depicted around them and so instead of refuting them,they embrace and live out the negative examples because it happens to be all they know.Rap music is a significant carrier of this message amongst black males,educating and raising them up as Fathers dictating to them best way to manhood.

“Belonging is tied up with our most intimate feelings and that disregarding or disrespecting these is likely to produce defensiveness.For this reason it is important that those who work with young people gain an understanding of what belonging might mean to them.” (Thomson,2007,pg.173)

A lot of youth work practice is spent trying to undo and re-boot the minds of young males on their summations of life, but as practitioners we should come to a healthy understanding that all identity, boils down to an  innate desire to belong .It is therefore our role to take the first step  to  truly understand where these summations come from,and the value its holds for them ,to then be able to  guide and help boys become men.



1. Sunday Mirror  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4161/is_20061015/ai_n16785132/?tag=content;col1

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September 15, 2010 4 comments
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September 3, 2010 Leave a comment
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September 1, 2010 Leave a comment


Lead from the front ..and fear NOTHING!

Until I type Again…

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August 26, 2010 5 comments


I was cleaning out my room and found an old book that¬†I bought ages ago.Had a read through and found some REALLY insightful real-life stories and concepts about relationships and marriage,just wanted to share and pass on the knowledge.I’m not going to say too much about it but I would really encourage you to have a read whether you single ,married courting¬†,dating or whatever they call it nowadays…lool ¬†¬†

Click on the link below and get a better understanding of it and then let me know your thoughts.

LINK TO BOOK:     http://www.play.com/Books/Books/4-/1635554/I-Love-You-More/Product.html

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